The Reason Justified True Belief is still Valid as Knowledge.

untitledWhat I find so humorous is when Atheists argue against themselves.

Episteme, as distinguished from techne, is etymologically derived from the Ancient Greek word ἐπιστήμη for knowledge orscience, which comes from the verb ἐπίσταμαι, “to know”. In Plato‘s terminology episteme means knowledge, as in “justified true belief“, in contrast to doxa, common belief or opinion. The word epistemology, meaning the study of knowledge, is derived from episteme.

Episteme became Epistemology, which became Science.

Epistemology (Listeni/ɨˌpɪstɨˈmɒləi/; from Greek ἐπιστήμη, epistēmē, meaning “knowledge, understanding”, and λόγος,logos, meaning “study of”) is the branch of philosophy concerned with the nature and scope of knowledge[1][2] and is also referred to as “theory of knowledge”.

There are other types of knowledge as far as the ancient greeks are concerned.

“Techne” is a term, etymologically derived from the Greek word τέχνη (Ancient Greek: [tékʰnɛː], Modern Greek: [ˈtexni] ( listen)), that is often translated as “craftsmanship”, “craft”, or “art”.

Phronesis (Ancient Greek: φρόνησις, phronēsis) is a Greek word for a type of wisdom or intelligence, which is a common topic of discussion in philosophy.

Gnosis is the common Greek noun for knowledge (in the nominative case γνῶσις f.). In Christian, Islamic, or Jewish mysticism, mystery religions and Gnosticism gnosis generally signifies a spiritual knowledge or “religion of knowledge”, in the sense of mystical enlightenment or “insight”. Gnosis taught a deliverance of man from the constraints of earthly existence through insight into an essential relationship, as soul or spirit, with a supramundane place of freedom.[1]

The fact of the matter is people don’t walk into walls because they believe that they are solid.  You can debate all you want, belief informs action.  People act on what they believe.  Justified, True, Belief is a rhetorical tautology of peer review, that which can be agreed to exist or to be true.  To disagree with the most scientific definition of knowledge is silly.

“A piece of knowledge is never false or true – but only more or less biologically and evolutionary useful. All dogmatic creeds are approximations: these approximations form a humus from which better approximations grow.” (Ernst Mach) 

One last thing, the matter really comes down to how the Greeks, the people that created the philosophy defined belief.  This is a common logical fallacy that people have, thinking that you can falsify somebody from your own perspective without understanding what they are saying, this is where my skills as a linguistic philosopher come in.

Doxa, a philosopheme[edit]

In Plato’s Gorgias (dialogue), Plato presents the Sophists, rhetors who taught people how to speak for the promise of commercial success, as wordsmiths that ensnare and use the malleable doxa of the “multitude” to their advantage without shame.[5] In this and other writings, Plato relegated doxa as being a belief, unrelated to reason, that resided in the unreasoning, lower-parts of the soul.[6] This viewpoint extended into the concept of doxasta in Plato’s Theory of Forms, which states that physical objects are manifestations of doxa and are thus not in their true form.[7] Plato’s framing of doxa as the opponent of knowledge led to the classical opposition of error to truth, which has since become a major concern in Western philosophy. (However, in the Theaetetus and in the Meno, Plato has Socrates suggest that knowledge is orthos doxa for which one can provide a logos, thus initiating the traditional definition of knowledge as “justified true belief“.) Thus, error is considered in Occident as pure negativity, which can take various forms, among them the form of illusion. As such, doxa may ironically be defined as the “philosopher‘s sin“. In classical rhetoric, it is contrasted with episteme.

Plato’s student Aristotle objected to Plato’s assumption of doxa. Aristotle perceived that doxa’s value was in practicality and common usage, in contrast with Plato’s philosophical purity relegating doxa to deception. Further, Aristotle held doxa as the first step in finding knowledge, as doxa had found applications in the physical world and those who held it had great amount of tests done to prove it and thus reason to believe it.[8] Aristotle clarifies this by categorizing the accepted truths of the physical world that are passed down from generation to generation as endoxa.[9] Endoxa is a more stable belief than doxa, because it has been “tested” in argumentative struggles in the Polis by prior interlocutors. The use of endoxa in the Stagirite’s Organon can be found in Aristotle’s Topics and Rhetoric.

Pistis in rhetoric[edit]

Thus, pistis in rhetoric are the elements to induce true judgment through enthymemes, hence to give proof of a statement.[3] There are three modes by which this is employed. The first mode is the “subject matter capable of inducing a state of mind within the audience.”[4] The second pistis is the “subject itself considered under an appeal to the intellect or in its logical aspects.”[4] The third pistis is the “logical, rational, and intellectual aspect of the issue under discussion.”[5] All three modes of pistis occur in logos as it appeals to logical persuasion.[3]



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