In rhetoric, parrhesia is a figure of speech described as: to speak candidly or to ask forgiveness for so speaking. The term is borrowed from the Greek παρρησία (πᾶν “all” + ῥῆσις / ῥῆμα “utterance, speech”) meaning literally “to speak everything” and by extension “to speak freely,” “to speak boldly,” or “boldness.” It implies not only freedom of speech, but the obligation to speak the truth for the common good, even at personal risk. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Parrhesia
I am going to demonstrate my models of psychopath and sociopath. I have made it clear in the past that I disagree with the models currently in use because of the way in which the terms were created, I don’t think a clear demarcation or understanding of the two mentalities has been made. The sociopath is like a zen monk or a samurai, a warrior philosopher. the psychopath and the sociopath are based on two completely different models. The psychopath is a social climber who seeks out groups of people and attempts to move to the top in them. The sociopath on the other hand is in relationship with nature, reality, and truth. He is a death seeker, a philosopher, he wants to know what is real and he can survive in a state of nature on his own. The psychopath steals or uses other peoples resources and never contributes more value than he consumes while the sociopath creates more value than he consumes and gets good results in reality. The psychopath will conceal his true nature, his intentions, his narrative, he doesn’t want to be known accurately and capitalizes on deception and manipulation of others. The sociopath on the other hand, wants to be known, wants to be evaluated correctly, will fight you on a level playing field and will tell you exactly what he is going to do. His speech is ugly, abrasive, unpleasant, about ugly subjects and is in general off putting.
“All narrative is doxography.” me 🙂
In my system I view thoughts, actions, and words as tautologies of a certain perspective, the trick is to correctly recognize who is talking. I am going to quote some exerts from the APOLOGY by Plato which was the trial of Socrates as Plato remembered it.
And this, O men of Athens, is the truth and the whole truth; I have concealed nothing, I have dissembled nothing. And yet, I know that my plainness of speech makes them hate me, and what is their hatred but a proof that I am speaking the truth?–Hence has arisen the prejudice against me; and this is the reason of it, as you will find out either in this or in any future enquiry.
Some one will say: And are you not ashamed, Socrates, of a course of life which is likely to bring you to an untimely end? To him I may fairly answer: There you are mistaken: a man who is good for anything ought not to calculate the chance of living or dying; he ought only to consider whether in doing anything he is doing right or wrong–acting the part of a good man or of a bad. Whereas, upon your view, the heroes who fell at Troy were not good for much, and the son of Thetis above all, who altogether despised danger in comparison with disgrace; and when he was so eager to slay Hector, his goddess mother said to him, that if he avenged his companion Patroclus, and slew Hector, he would die himself–‘Fate,’ she said, in these or the like words, ‘waits for you next after Hector;’ he, receiving this warning, utterly despised danger and death, and instead of fearing them, feared rather to live in dishonour, and not to avenge his friend. ‘Let me die forthwith,’ he replies, ‘and be avenged of my enemy, rather than abide here by the beaked ships, a laughing-stock and a burden of the earth.’ Had Achilles any thought of death and danger? For wherever a man’s place is, whether the place which he has chosen or that in which he has been placed by a commander, there he ought to remain in the hour of danger; he should not think of death or of anything but of disgrace. And this, O men of Athens, is a true saying.
…either acquit me or not; but whichever you do, understand that I shall never alter my ways, not even if I have to die many times.
For I am certain, O men of Athens, that if I had engaged in politics, I should have perished long ago, and done no good either to you or to myself. And do not be offended at my telling you the truth: for the truth is, that no man who goes to war with you or any other multitude, honestly striving against the many lawless and unrighteous deeds which are done in a state, will save his life; he who will fight for the right, if he would live even for a brief space, must have a private station and not a public one.
This was a specimen of the sort of commands which they were always giving with the view of implicating as many as possible in their crimes; and then I showed, not in word only but in deed, that, if I may be allowed to use such an expression, I cared not a straw for death, and that my great and only care was lest I should do an unrighteous or unholy thing. For the strong arm of that oppressive power did not frighten me into doing wrong; and when we came out of the rotunda the other four went to Salamis and fetched Leon, but I went quietly home. For which I might have lost my life, had not the power of the Thirty shortly afterwards come to an end. And many will witness to my words.
And if any one says that he has ever learned or heard anything from me in private which all the world has not heard, let me tell you that he is lying.
I don’t believe now, and i have never thought, that the disrespect for authority was a psychopathic trait, I think it has always been a sociopathic trait. But I will modify that by saying because of the similitude between the female mind and the psychopath, the psychopath would have a contempt for male minds, but would most likely kiss ass anyway to ingratiate one self to the authority. Sociopaths on the other hand don’t have a problem with Sapiential authority, or uncorrupt authority, they have a disdain for psychopaths in positions of authority, and they refuse to participate with corrupt authority, this is fascinating because if you go back to the Augure’s the ones that created the concept of authority, the word authority, and the philosophy of authority, authority DOESN’T extend to unjust laws or actions, and even the highest authority is still under the law not above the law.
In closing, it is my belief that the sociopath is a hunter gatherer mind, a male mind, while the psychopath is a female mind, from agricultural society.
- Sociopath/psychopath Dichotomy (thoughtuncommon.wordpress.com)
- Famous philosophers (audreyaliceedmund.com)
- Look Out: How to Recognize Sociopaths and Tips to Manage Them (thesunnyside.net)
- Parmenides is a sociopath. (hallidd.wordpress.com)
- When Socrates Met Phaedrus: Eros in Philosophy (opinionator.blogs.nytimes.com)
- Practical wisdom between Occident and Orient. (historyancientchina.wordpress.com)
- Was Socrates a Hunter Education Instructor? (huntercourse.com)